extension and population
| Brief historic
Main attractions of the capital |
Typical dishes and beverages |
EXTENSION AND POPULATION
The Constitutional Province of Callao is located in the largest
bay in this part of the continent, and in the central occidental
region of the country. It is the most important port of the
coast of South America. Even if it forms a geographical unit
with the city of Lima (the capital of the country), it has
a totally independent administration, as well as its own resources
that make it a very special place. Source:
It has an extension of 148 km² (57 sq ml)
and a population of almost 600,000 people.
Callao is said to be the key
of the capital of the Republic, not just because it is
a very important sea port, but also because it houses the
Jorge Chávez International Airport.
The capital is Callao
and it harbors the districts of Bellavista, La Perla, La Punta,
Carmen de la Legua and Ventanilla.
The temperature is almost the
same as in Lima. The weather is humid and with very few rains.
Experts say that the territory
of Callao has had since ancient times very special life conditions.
Its first settlers, who lived before the Incas, were a strong
and fierce race. The huacas or pre-Inca tombs of Maranga
and Bellavista confirm the advancement and organization of
these settlers until the Tahuantinsuyo or Inca armies
Properly speaking, the history
of Callao, however, starts two years after the foundation
of Lima, on March 6, 1937. The Lima Town Council sent Diego
Ruiz to establish a tambo bodega (inn and store) there.
This is how the first building was constructed, without foundation
minutes. By 1639 the port already had 5,000 people.
Since then, Callao started to
receive better attention from the viceroys. It was, after
all, the golden key to sea trade. Yet, on October 28, 1746
an earthquake devastated the area. With great effort, the
local people reconstructed the city, finally recovering its
During the independence struggle,
Callao was a strategic point and the population had an active
part in it. From the Real Felipe fortress, built in 1746,
squadrons led by Cochrane were twice repelled in 1819. In
1820, Callao endured the blockage held against the libertarian
gest of General San Martín.
The National Convention, at request
of one of its members, Manuel Toribio Ureta, approved unanimously
on April 22, 1857, to give the port of Callao the rank of
Constitutional Province. Since then, it has been known as
the Provincia Constitucional del Callao.
ATTRACTIONS OF THE CAPITAL
Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge
finely designed airport is considered among the most important
in this part of the continent, with facilities that are constantly
Felipe Fortress is a symbol of the defense of liberty
in Perú. From there, a new attempt of the Spanish to
take control of the country on May 2, 1866, was dismissed.
The construction of this fortress began in 1747 and took 27
years to finish it. It is a pentagon built in an area of 70,000
m² (27,000 sq. ft), including two fortified towers, Torre
del Rey and Torre de la Reina.
Islas Palomino and El Frontón.
Cruises are offered to go near these islands and enjoy the
wonderful view. These isles are the habitat of innumerable
bird species and sea lions.
Shipping Terminal, where
passengers and cargo ships arrive from all around the world.
Museum. It houses the most precious relics of the
heroes of the Peruvian Navy, specially of the greatest, Miguel
Grau. The museum keeps his sword, military cap, cuff buttons,
medals, silverware, navigation books, and letters. Also, inside
a sarcophagus lays a fragment of the tibia o thin bone of
the Lord of the Seas, as he was known, the sole human
remain recovered after his immolation in the Battle of Angamos
Fishing Terminal. Located
in the marina, this is where the fishermen sell their catch
Punta. One of the most well-attended beaches in
Callao. It is known for having a pebbled seashore. The beaches
of Chucuito, Cantolao and Arenillas are also very popular.
Chucuito. It is
a calm and hospitable resort, with a population mostly made
up of Italian descendants.
Churches in Callao include,
Iglesia Matriz del Callao,
Santa Rosa, San Juan Bosco, Virgen de Lourdes, Inmaculada
Concepción, San José, Sagrado Corazón
de Jesús, Nuestra Señora del Carmen de la Legua,
Escuela Naval del Perú
(Naval Academy) is located in the district of La Punta. It
trains and forms future marines, emulating the example of
Admiral Miguel Grau.
Instituto del Mar del Perú
(EMARPE). This national institute is responsible for planning,
coordinating, and executing hydrobiological research.
Colegio Militar Leoncio Prado,
located in the district of La Perla.
Club Regatas La Union.
Founded in 1891 in the district of La Punta, it is one of
the oldest social and sports clubs in Lima.
Perú Yacht Club.
Founded in 1932.
Bellavista Shooting Club.
Founded in 1910.
Servicio Industrial de la
Marina (SIMA). It is the shipyard of the Peruvian Navy,
where high quality vessels are constructed.
DISHES AND BEVERAGES
Fish and seafood is in Callao,
as in the other coastal cities, the basic ingredients of its
cuisine. At first, the best exponents of the Chalaco
culinary art concentrated along the old fishing pier. Afterwards,
they started to move and expand to different quarters and
Among the dishes created in Callao,
the most outstanding are cebiche, parihuela,
chupín, choros a la chalaca, chicharrón
de calamares con salsa tártara and corvina a
la chalaca. Restaurants in Callao also cook a dish that
has recently been censured, musciame (dolphin meat
dried in salted water). Yet, some are replacing dolphin meat
with sea lion.
The Chalacos drink local
beer and chicha de jora or fermented maize.
Anniversary of the Provincia Constitucional del Callao.
May 2. Military and civil
parades in honor of the heroes of the Battle of Dos de
Mayo (War of The Pacific, against Chile).
July 15. Procession of
the Virgen del Carmen de la Legua.
July 27. Anniversary
of the Sport Boys Club, the local soccer team.
October 6. Anniversary
October 8. Military and
civil parades and celebrations in honor of the heroic deeds
of Admiral Miguel Grau, and his immolation in the Battle
October 17. Anniversary
of La Punta.
October 28. Procession
of the Señor del Mar (Lord of the Seas). A multitudinary
display of the Catholic faith of the Chalacos.